How to Account For Not-For-Profit Organization
MAJOR CATEGORIES ARE:
C. Voluntary Health & Welfare
nonprofit organizations e.g., Churches/Conference/Districts
NOT-FOR-PROFIT (NONPROFIT) ORGANIZATION FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
SHOULD BE PREPARED IN ACCORDANCE WITH GAAP.
statements (e.g., FASB 116 and 117), APB opinions, ARB bulletins and other
authoritative pronouncements of the profession should be applied in reporting on such
financial statements unless they are inapplicable.
A. Accrual basis
accounting should be used.
1. Cash donations, pledges and revenues from sale of goods and services are all
recorded on the accrual basis
in accordance with GAAP
(e.g., a 3-year pledge
would result in pro-rata “revenue,” net of allowance for bad debts at a “present
is recorded in accordance with GAAP.
B. Fund accounting
appropriate for internal reporting
III. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REQUIRED
A. The “Statements of Activities”
are a combination of an income statement and
retained earnings statement. The four categories of nonprofit organizations are titled
the same. They are not
called “Income Statements.” There is no separate
of retained earnings.
B. Balance Sheets
are prepared for all nonprofit organizations. They have three equity
categories for external
reporting under FAS 117.
1. Unrestricted net assets
2. Temporarily restricted net assets
3. Permanently restricted net assets
C. “Statement of cash flows”
is required for “voluntary health and welfare”
organizations and encouraged for other not-for-profit organizations.
IV. CASH DONATIONS AND PLEDGES
A. Cash donations and pledges are recorded on the “accrual basis” as “nonoperating
B. “Allowance for uncollectible pledges”
should be based in accordance with
accounting for accounts receivable.
V. DONATED MATERIAL, SERVICES, AND FIXED ASSETS
A. Donated assets
(materials) of significant amounts should be recorded at their fair
value when received as “other operating revenue.”
B. Donated “services”
are generally not
Because of the difficulty of placing a monetary value on donated services, and
the absence of control over them, the value of these services is not recorded as
contributions and expense unless they:
1. require specialized
2. can be easily measured,
3. would otherwise need to be purchased.
C. Donated fixed assets
are recorded at FMV
at “date of gift”
with a credit to
“Unrestricted Net Assets,” unless designated for a restricted purpose.
An exception is made in FAS 116 for “works of art”
or historical treasures. If the
work of art is not to be resold and only exhibited (or if resold, the proceeds are used
to purchase other works of art for exhibition), the asset need not be recorded as
revenues or be capitalized.
VI. BASIS OF ASSETS
(updated by FAS 124 issued Nov. 95)
A. Purchased fixed assets are carried “at cost”
as required by GAAP.
in marketable securities (debt and equity) are carried at fair (market)
value with increases or decreases recognized in the period in which they occur. Gains
or losses are included as “changes in unrestricted net assets” in a “statement of
activities,” unless restricted by donor or by law.
C. Donated assets
are recorded at their “fair market value” at the “date of the gift,”
or later BS date.
D. Depreciation is recorded
in accordance with GAAP (“Required” Jan. 1, 1990) for
nongovernmental nonprofit organizations.
(updated by FAS 124 issued Nov. 95)
Investment of unrestricted funds
are made to earn additional income until such time
as the funds are to be used for program or other purposes.
Investments of “endowment”
and “other restricted funds,”
may have been
purchased by, or donated to, the organization.
C. “Marketable equity securities”
should be reported in separate portfolios
“unrestricted current,” “unrestricted noncurrent,” “restricted current”
“restricted noncurrent assets,” but may be pooled
for investment purposes, if gains
and losses are equitable allocated to both
“realized” and “unrealized” gains and
D. Basis of Valuation
1. Investments purchased
should be recorded at cost,
which includes brokerage
fees, taxes, and other charges directly applicable to the purchase.
2. Securities donated
to the organization should be recorded
at their fair market
at the date of the gift. The gains are unrestricted if the investment income
is unrestricted or temporarily restricted.
3. The carrying value of investments at (fair) market value
is now required
4. The basis of carrying investments should be the same in all funds.
I. This Statement pertains to the Accountant’s UNAUDITED Financial Statements
STATEMENT OF STANDARDS FOR “ACCOUNTING” AND REVIEW
SERVICES NO. 1 (UPDATED FOR SSARS #7)
“COMPILATION” and “REVIEW” of Financial Statements (SSARS #1)
(Issued by the “Accounting & Review Services Committee” of the AICPA)
for a Nonpublic* Company that pertains to:
of Financial Statements. (NOT ACCEPTABLE FOR DISTRICTS)
of Financial Statements.
C. This precludes the accountant from merely typing or reproducing client-prepared FS
(without modification) as an accommodation to the client if the FS will be used in a
client-prepared document where the accountant is named.
D. It requires the accountant to issue a report whenever he completes a compilation or
review of the financial statements of a nonpublic entity.
E. When the accountant performs more than one service (e.g., a “compilation” and an
“audit”), he should issue a report appropriate for the highest service rendered.
II. The Following Form of Standard Report is Appropriate for a Review:
(Use “date of completion”)
I (We) have reviewed the accompanying balance sheet of XYZ Company as of
December 31, 19XX, and the related statements of income, retained earnings, and cash flows
for the year then ended, in accordance with Statements of Standards for Accounting and
Review Services issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. All
information included in these financial statements is the representation of the management
(owners) of XYZ company.
A review consists principally of inquiries of company personnel and analytical
procedures applied to financial data. It is substantially less in scope than an audit in
accordance with generally accepted auditing standards, the objective of which is the expression
of an opinion regarding the financial statements taken as a whole. Accordingly, I (we) do not
express such an opinion.
Based on my (our) review, I am (we are) not aware of any material modifications that
should be made to the accompanying financial statements in order for them to be in conformity
with generally accepted accounting principles.
of the financial statements reviewed by the accountant should include a
reference such as “See Accountant’s Review Report.”
III. REVIEW of Financial Statements – Illustrative Inquiries
of appropriate client
The inquiries to be made in a review of FS are a matter of the accountant’s judgment. In
determining his inquiries, an accountant may consider:
A. The nature and materiality of the items
B. The likelihood of misstatement
C. Knowledge obtained during current and previous examinations
D. Procedures for recording and summarizing transactions
E. Stated qualifications of the entity’s accounting personnel
F. Extent to which a particular item is affected by management’s judgment
G. Inadequacies in the entity’s underlying financial data
Note: Internal Control inquiries are not part of a “review.”